The All India Services Act, 1951, provides for the creation of two more All India Services, namely, the Indian Engineering Service and the Indian Medical Service.

What it is?

The Constitution under Article 312 provides for the creation of All India Services (AIS) common to the Union and the States. The All India Services Act, 1951 provides that the Central Government may make rules for regulating the recruitment and the conditions of service of persons appointed to the All India Services.

The All India Services Act, 1951, provides for the creation of two more All India Services, namely, the Indian Engineering Service and the Indian Medical Service.

Who is the cadre controlling authority for IAS?

The Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions is the cadre controlling authority for the Indian Administrative Service, The Ministry of Home Affairs is the cadre controlling authority for the Indian Police Service and the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change for the Forest Service.

How are they recruited?

At present, only the Indian Administrative Service (IAS), the Indian Police Service (IPS) and the Indian Forest Service (IFS) have been constituted as All India Services. Recruitment to these services is made under the corresponding AIS Recruitment Rules and are done by Direct Recruitment (through the Union Public Service Commission – Civil Services Examination) and by promotion from the State Service.

What are their objectives?

The following were the broad objectives of the Constitution-Framers in providing for the scheme of All India Services, common to the Union and the States:

  1. Facilitating liaison between the Union and the States;
  2. Ensuring a certain uniformity in standards of administration;
  3. Enabling the administrative machinery at the Union level to keep in touch with realities at the field in the States;
  4. Helping State administrative machinery to acquire a wider outlook and obtain the best possible talent for its senior posts; and
  5. Ensuring that political considerations either in recruitment or in discipline and control are reduced to the minimum, if not eliminated altogether.
IAS All India Services

Indian Administrative Service

Indian Administrative Service
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 What is the history of IAS?

  1. Civil Servants for the East India Company used to be nominated by the Directors of the Company and thereafter trained at Haileybury College in London and then sent to India.
  2. Following Lord Macaulay’s Report of the Select Committee of British Parliament, the concept of a merit-based modern Civil Service in India was introduced in 1854.
  3. The Report recommended that patronage-based system of East India Company should be replaced by a permanent Civil Service based on a merit-based system with entry through competitive examinations.
  4. For this purpose, a Civil Service Commission was setup in 1854 in London and competitive examinations were started in 1855. Initially, the examinations for Indian Civil Service were conducted only in London.
  5. The maximum age for the appearing for the examination was 23 years and minimum age was 18 years.
  6. From 1922 onwards, the Indian Civil Service Examination began to be held in India also, first in Allahabad and later in Delhi, with the setting up of the Federal Public Service Commission.
  7. The examination in London continued to be conducted by the Civil Service Commission.

What is IAS?

The Indian Administrative Service (IAS), a hallmark of governance in India, was constituted in 1946. The Constitution provides that without depriving the States of their right to form their own Civil Services there shall be an All India Service recruited on an All India basis with common qualifications, with uniform scale of pay and the member of which alone could be appointed to these strategic posts throughout the Union. No wonder that Sardar Vallabhai Patel, one of the eminent leaders of the freedom struggle referred to the Civil Services as the steel frame of the nation. The civil services, therefore, represents the essential spirit of our nation – unity in diversity.

What are the roles of IAS?

  1. Collection of revenue and function as Courts in revenue matters
  2. Maintenance of law and order
  3. Function as Execution Magistrate
  4. Function as Chief Development Officer (CDO)/District Development Commissioner
  5. Supervision of implementation of policies of State Government and Central Government
  6. To travel to places to oversee implementation of policies
  7. Supervision of expenditure of public funds as per norms of financial propriety
  8. In the process of policy formulation and decision making, IAS officers at various levels like Joint Secretary, Deputy Secretary, etc. make their contributions and the give final shape to policies
  9. To handle the daily affairs of the government, including framing and implementation of policy in consultation with the minister-in-charge of the concerned Ministry.

Indian Police Service

IPS Photo
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What is the history of IPS?

  • Prior to Independence, superior police officers belonged to the Indian (Imperial) Police appointed by the Secretary of State through a competitive examination.
  • The first open competition for the service was held in England in June, 1893 and 10 top candidates were appointed as Probationary Assistant Superintendents of Police.
  • Entry into the Imperial Police was thrown open to Indians only after 1920 and the following year examinations for the service were conducted both in England and India. Indianisation of the police service continued to be very slow despite pronouncements and recommendations of the Islington Commission and the Lee Commission.
  • Till 1931, Indians were appointed against 20 per cent of the total posts of Superintendents of Police. However, because of non-availability of the suitable European candidates, more Indians were appointed to the Indian Police from the year 1939 onwards.

What is IPS?

The Indian Police Service (IPS) was constituted under Article 312 of the Constitution of India. The IPS officers provide senior level leadership to the police forces both in the States and at the Centre. The Police Division in the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) is responsible for cadre management of the IPS and policy decisions such as cadre structure, recruitment, training, cadre allocation, confirmation, empanelment, deputation, pay and allowances, disciplinary matters of IPS Officers.

Indian Forest Service

Indian Forest Service
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What is the history of Indian Forest Service?

  • The British Indian Government started the Imperial Forest Department in 1864 and to organize the affairs of the Imperial Forest Department, the Imperial Forest Service was constituted in 1867.
  • From 1867 to 1885, the officers appointed to the Imperial Forest Service were trained in France and Germany. Till 1905, they were trained at Coopers Hill, London.
  • In 1920, it was decided that further recruitment to the Imperial Forest Service would be made bydirect recruitment in England and India and by promotion from the provincial service in India.
  • After Independence, the Indian Forest Service was created in 1966 under All India Services Act 1951.

What is Indian Forest Service?

The main mandate of the service is the implementation of the National Forest Policy which envisages scientific management of forests and to exploit them on a sustained basis for primary timber products, among other things.

Since 1935, the management of the forests remained in the hands of the Provincial Governments and even today the Forest Departments are managing the forests of the country under the respective State governments.

What is Union Public Service Commission?

The origin of the Public Service Commission in India is found in the First Despatch of the Government of India on the Indian Constitutional Reforms on the 5th March, 1919 which referred to the need for setting up some permanent office charged with the regulation of service matters.

Section 96(C) of the Act provided for the establishment in India of a Public Service Commission which should “discharge, in regard to recruitment and control of the Public Services in India, such functions as may be assigned thereto by rules made by the Secretary of State in Council”.

On October 1, 1926 the Public Service Commission was set up in India for the first time. It consisted of four Members in addition to the Chairman. Sir Ross Barker, a member of the Home Civil Service of the United Kingdom was the first Chairman of the Commission.

With the inauguration of the Constitution of India in January 26, 1950, the Federal Public Service Commission came to be known as the Union Public Service Commission, and the Chairman and Members of the Federal Public Service Commission became Chairman and Members of the Union Public Service Commission by virtue of Clause (1) of Article 378 of the Constitution.

What are the functions of the Union Public Service Commission?

Under Article 320 of the Constitution of India, the Commission is, inter-alia, required to be consulted on all matters relating to recruitment to civil services and posts.

The functions of the Commission under Article 320 of the Constitution are:

  • Conduct examinations for appointment to the services of the Union
  • Direct recruitment by selection through interviews
  • Appointment of officers on promotion / deputation / absorption
  • Framing and amendment of Recruitment Rules for various services and posts under the Government
  • Disciplinary cases relating to different Civil Services 6. Advising the Government on any matter referred to the Commission by the President of India

Ranks in All India Services:

Ranks of the Indian Administrative Service are as follows:

  • Posting as SDM/Joint Magistrate/Sub Collector
  • Posting as Municipal Commissioner, DDO/CDO
  • Posting as DM/Collector
  • Posting at State Secretariats at Director/Joint Secretary level.
  • Deputation to the Central Government can be opted for during any stage of service after serving for a few years.
  • Principal/Additional Secretary in the State Secretariat/Central Secretariat
  • Chief Secretary of a state
  • Cabinet Secretary

Ranks of the Indian Police Service are as follows:

  • Additional Superintendent of Police in the districts/ Additional Deputy Commissioner of Police.
  • Superintendent of Police
  • Joint Commissioner of Police
  • Senior Superintendent of Police (SSP)/Additional police commissioner.
  • Deputy Inspector General of Police (DIG)
  • Inspector General of Police (IG)
  • Additional Director General of Police.
  • Director General of Police (DGP)/Commissioner of the Mega City Police Force

Ranks of the Indian Forest Service are as follows:

  • Assistant Conservator of Forests – Probationary Officer,
  • Divisional Forest Officer (DFOs),
  • Deputy Conservator of Forests,
  • Conservator of Forests (CFs),
  • Chief Conservator of Forests (CCFs),
  • Additional Principal Chief Conservator of Forests (Addl.PCCFs),
  • Principal Chief Conservator of Forests (PCCF), Director General of Forests (India)

How to become IAS or IPS or IFoS?


The UPSC CSE in India is a nationwide competitive examination conducted by the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC). Via the Civil Services Examination, the UPSC recruits candidates for various Central and All India Civil Service posts in the Indian Administrative Service (IAS), Indian Foreign Service (IFS), Indian Police Service (IPS), Indian Revenue Service (IRS), etc.

How to ace UPSC CSE?


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